Recent calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of mineral fertilizers have shown, that in connection with the increase in prices for products of the chemical industry, their use in farms has become less profitable than in previous years.Such a situation forces farmers to find alternative sources of essential nutrients for successful agriculture. One of them is organic fertilizers, which most companies, to put it mildly, did not pay attention. Is it possible to consider organic fertilizers as an equivalent mineral alternative? Will their application make it possible to obtain stable yields?
So let’s find out what possibilities the application of compost, the most widespread organic, opens up before us.
Organic fertilizers play a significant role in the accumulation of humus reserves, the level of which with the constant use of chemical fertilizers decreases. In fact, humus is the energy base of biological processes that occur in soils, a source available for plants micro and macroelements, physiologically active substances. Humus contains about 80% of all nitrogen reserves and 40% of phosphorus. The content of humus in the soil is one of the most important factors in the fertility of the soil, as it structure depends on the creation water resistance of the soil, improving aeration, regulation of nutrient regime and physical properties of the soil.
The influence of humus on fertility rates can be achieved only due to its optimal content in the soil. Without the use of organic fertilizers, it can lose from 500 kg to 1000 kg per hectare annually. One of the options for increasing the humus content in the soil and obtaining high yields, is the use of organic fertilizers.
Compost is an excellent organic fertilizer, which contains a number of trace elements that are important for plant nutrition.
|№||Name of indicator (units of measurement) ||Tests results||Tests method|
|1||pH 10% solution, units of measurement pH||8,8||Ion|
|2||Mass fraction of moisture, %||53,5||State Standard 26713-85 p.4.1|
|3||Mass fraction of ash, %||49,8||State Standard 26714-85|
|4||Mass fraction of organic matter in terms of carbon C, %||25,1||State Standard 27980-88 p.1|
|5||Mass fraction of total nitrogen in terms of N, %||2,5||State Standard 26715-85 Kjeldahl|
|6||Mass fraction of total phosphorus in terms of P205, %||1,5||State Standard 26717-85
|7||Mass fraction of total potassium in terms of K20, %||3,8||State Standard 26718-85
|8||Mass fraction of total sulfur in terms of S, %||0,57||ICP-AES*|
|9||Mass fraction of total calcium in terms of CaO, %||3,5||State Standard 26715-85
|10||Mass fraction of copper in terms of Сu, mg / kg||189||State Standard 26715-85
|11||Mass fraction of iron in terms of Fe, %||0,19||State Standard 26715-85
|12||Mass fraction of zinc in terms of Zn, mg / kg||158||State Standard 26715-85
This is necessary to maintain soil fertility and the formation of humus.
This content of nutrients is achieved by observing the conditions of proper composting and storage.
Compost has the maximum efficiency, each element has an organic origin – this form of nutrients is the most rational, and also has the maximum absorption by plants without loss of these precious elements. Compost is used by plants not only in direct action of the first year, its efficiency is traced also in aftereffect, on 2 and 3 years after introduction. The availability of assimilation of nutrients from compost has a prolonged effect, and efficiency – for three years.
Compost in the fertilizer system is most expedient to apply under corn for grain and silage, sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. Under cereals (winter wheat, barley, rye) it is better to make carefully and clearly control the rate, as it should be agronomic and economically expedient. High doses can lead to crop failure.
Application of compost and mineral fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, ammophos, potassium chloride) on the example of cultivation of corn for the grain showed:
|Nitrogen - 120 kg / ha|
|Phosphorus - 90 kg / ha||6 t / ha|
|Potassium - 120 kg / ha|
Calculating the value of the active substance of mineral fertilizers N120P90K120 per 1 hectare area at current prices for 2020, we had the following indicators
|Mineral fertilizers per hectare / price||Compost / price|
|Total:||6,900 UAH / ha||UAH 6,000 / ha|
|Ammonium nitrate||2180 UAH / ha|
|Amophos||2420 UAH / ha||UAH 6,000 / ha|
|Potassium chloride||2300 UAH / ha|
However, when applying the same amount of N120P90K120 per 1 ha of area contained in the compost (6 t / ha), the costs amounted to UAH 6,000 /ha.
The difference of savings of 15% (900 UAH / ha) indicates that the use of compost will help not only to accumulate humus in the soil and a full range of micro and macronutrients, but also to save 900 UAH per 1 ha land.